Reference and Information Services: An Introduction (Library and Information Science Text Series)



Richard E. Bopp/ Linda C. Smith

4th Edition



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~Description / table of content~

Contents Preface Acknowledgments Contributors

Part I: Concepts and Processes Chapter 1:*HISTORY AND FUNCTIONS OF REFERENCE SERVICE David A. Tyckoson Introduction The Library and the Community What Libraries Do Collections Organization Service Historical Development of Reference Service Universal Education and Public Libraries Samuel Green and the Founding of Reference Service Original Functions of the Reference Librarian Changes since 1876: Technology Changes since 1876: Diversity Functions of the Reference Librarian Today Reference Service: Varieties and Approaches Styles of Reference Service Types of Reference Service Models of Reference Service The Personal Nature of Reference Service How Are Reference Librarians Doing? The Future of Reference

Chapter 2:*ETHICAL ASPECTS OF REFERENCE SERVICE Richard E. Rubin Introduction and Historical Background Ethical Guidance in the Contemporary Ethical Environment Ethical or Professional Codes Competencies and Ethical Behavior The First Amendment as an Ethical Guide Some Major Ethical Issues Facing Reference Librarians and Other Information Professionals The Tension between Protecting the Right of Access and Protecting Individuals or Society from Harm Issues Related to Equality of Access to Information Copyright Issues Digital Reference Conclusion

Chapter 3:*THE REFERENCE INTERVIEW M. Kathleen Kern and Beth S. Woodard Introduction Overview of the Reference Interview Process Opening the Interview Question Negotiation Searching Involving the User Presentation of Answers Closing Personality Qualities of Reference Librarians Service Orientation Patience and Persistence Sensitivity Self-Control Flexibility and Sense of Humor Good Judgment Knowledge and Confidence Reference Environments Interviews for Specific Situations Dealing with Multiple Users and Queues Angry or Upset Users Imposed Queries Readers’ Advisory Remote Users Conclusion

Chapter 4:* ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION AND SEARCH STRATEGIES Prudence W. Dalrymple and Linda C. Smith Introduction The Library Catalog Indexes Beyond Catalogs and Indexes Principles of Bibliographic Control Arrangement Collocation and Name Authority Control Subject Authority Control Depth and Comprehensiveness of Indexing The Concept of Search Strategy The Electronic Environment Strategies for Bibliographic Searching The Specific-to-General Approach The General-to-Specific Approach Context and Feedback Choice of Reference Tool Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 5:*ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR REFERENCE Kathleen M. Kluegel Introduction History of Electronic Resources Databases Searching Capabilities Boolean Logic Truncation Displaying the Index Positional Searching Creating Search Strategies Beyond Boolean Search Strategy Bibliographic Control Electronic Resources and the End User Structures Invisible to the Casual Observer The User and the Interface Integrating End-User Resources into User-Centered Reference Services Reference Service Environment Managing Access Expanding Resources Definition of the Reference Collection Conclusion

Chapter 6:* UNDERSTANDING ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR REFERENCE Kathleen M. Kluegel Introduction History of the Internet Internet Terms and Concepts Protocols Client-Server Computing Hypertext Transfer Protocol URL Stateful or Stateless? Other Significant Protocols META Tags Beyond HTML Future Developments Proliferating Resources Internet Solutions Internet Challenges Internet Resource Description Standards Technological Ripples Orphan Technologies Electronic Archiving Public Information Resources and the Reference Librarian The Future of Reference Technology

Chapter 7:*ACCESS-RELATED REFERENCE SERVICES Lynn Wiley Introduction Access Expectations Library Responses Library Collections Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Library Networks: Local to Shared OCLC: A Network Leader Document Delivery: Nonreturnables Standards and Protocols Legal Issues for ILL/Document Delivery Copyright Licensing Agreements Digital Rights Management (DRM) Open Access Summary: Access Anywhere, Anytime

Chapter 8:*INSTRUCTION Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe Introduction What Is Instruction? Theoretical Approaches to Instruction Relationship to Reference Services Developing and Implementing Instruction Needs Assessment Goals and Objectives Instructional Content Learning Theory and Styles Instructional Methods Instructional Materials Instructional Technology Evaluation and Assessment Administration and Management of Instruction Organizational Structures Personnel Program Structures Funding Facilities Publicity and Public Relations Future Trends and Challenges

Chapter 9: TRAINING AND CONTINUAL LEARNING FOR REFERENCE STAFF Beth S. Woodard Introduction Orientation Enculturation Socialization Expectations Environments Conducive for Ongoing Learning Basic Training: Learning the Essentials Defining Competencies Assessing Training Needs Training Needs of Specific Groups Writing Objectives for Training Selecting Methods Facilitating Retention of Skills Feedback Evaluating Training Beyond the Basics: Continual Learning Mastery or Expertise Change Management Job Stress Burnout Organizational Responses Personal Responses: Continuing Education Conclusion

Chapter 10:*EVALUATION OF REFERENCE SERVICES Jo Bell Whitlatch Introduction Why Evaluate Reference? The Role of Standards in Reference Evaluation What to Evaluate Evaluation Methods Surveys or Questionnaires Observation Interviews and Focus Groups Case Studies Planning and Organizing Data Collection and Analysis The Evaluation Report Conclusion

Chapter 11:* ORGANIZING AND DELIVERING REFERENCE AND INFORMATION SERVICES Jim Hahn and Josephine Z. Kibbee Introduction The Roles of Reference Librarians Reference as a Place in the Library Reading Rooms, Mixing Chambers, and Information Commons Location of Reference Services The Reference Desk: Critical Mass or Trivial Pursuit? Service Models In-Person Service Mobile Librarians and Embedded Service Digital Reference Service Delivering Virtual Reference Services Staffing Models Cooperative and Collaborative Reference Handheld Computing and Reference Service Keeping Current, Staying Relevant

Chapter 12:*REFERENCE SERVICES FOR SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Frances Jacobson Harris Introduction Reference Service in a Pluralistic Society Ethnic Diversity Non-English Speakers Illiterate/Low-Literate Adults Reference Service to Disabled Individuals Persons with Physical Disabilities Persons with Developmental and Cognitive Disabilities Reference Services for Specific Age Groups Children and Young Adults Older Adults Conclusion Part II: Information Sources and Their Use

Chapter 13:*SELECTION AND EVALUATION OF REFERENCE SOURCES Linda C. Smith Reference Sources What Is a Reference Source? Types of Sources Trends in Reference Publishing Reference Collection Development and Maintenance Components of the Collection Reference Collection Development Arrangement of the Collection Weeding the Collection Evaluation of Sources Format Scope Relation to Similar Works Authority Treatment Arrangement Special Features Cost Virtual Reference Collection Development Selection Aids Reviewing Sources Guides to Reference Sources Sources, Collections, and Services in Transition

Chapter 14:*DIRECTORIES Joseph E. Straw Uses and Characteristics Evaluation Scope Currency Accuracy Arrangement Selection User Community Cost Uniqueness Directories as Databases Important General Sources Identifying Directories Telephone Directories Library Directories Association Directories Publishing Directories Education Directories Foundations and Grants Directories Business Directories Government Directories Specialized Directories Search Strategies Reference Interview Print Directories Electronic Directories Conclusion


Chapter 15:*ALMANACS, YEARBOOKS, AND HANDBOOKS Lori S. Mestre Uses and Characteristics Almanacs Yearbooks Handbooks and Manuals Evaluation Accuracy Indexing Documentation Comprehensiveness Uniqueness Format Currency Selection Online Options Important General Sources Almanacs Yearbooks Handbooks Search Strategies

Chapter 16:*BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES Jeanne Holba Puacz Uses and Characteristics Direct versus Indirect Current versus Retrospective International versus National Alternative Sources Evaluation Currency Accuracy and Authority Scope and Comprehensiveness Format Cautions Selection Needs of Users Cost Important General Sources Directories of the Who’s Who Form Indexes Biographical Dictionaries Aggregate Sources Free Web Resources Search Strategies Factual Data Narrative Biographies Subject Inquiries Images Recently Deceased Obituaries Local and Lesser-Known Personalities Genealogical Information Fictional Personalities Book-Length Biographies

Chapter 17:*DICTIONARIES Stephanie R. Davis-Kahl Uses and Characteristics Purpose: Past and Present Kinds of Information Found in Dictionaries Types of Dictionaries Evaluation Authority Accuracy and Currency Format Scope Comparing Similar Dictionaries Selection Sources for Reviews Electronic Options Important General Sources Unabridged Dictionaries Etymological Dictionaries Desk Foreign-Language/English-Language Dictionaries Dialect and Regionalisms Slang and Euphemisms Thesauri and Usage Guides Abbreviations and Acronyms Quotations Search Strategies

Chapter 18:*ENCYCLOPEDIAS Melissa A. Wong Uses and Characteristics Kinds of Information Contained in Encyclopedias Evaluation Reviewing Tools Scope Format Uniqueness Authority Accuracy Objectivity Currency Arrangement and Indexing Selection Determining Need in Different Library Settings Cost Choosing between Print and Online Options Important General Sources Encyclopedias for Children and Young Adults Encyclopedias for Adults Single-Volume Encyclopedias Subject Encyclopedias Search Strategies Which Encyclopedia Should I Use?

Chapter 19:*GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES David A. Cobb Uses and Characteristics Evaluation Scale and Projection Color and Symbols Publisher/Authority Indexing and Place Names Currency Selection Format Important General Sources Maps Online and Digital Map Sources Atlases Gazetteers Travel Guides Other Geographical Sources Search Strategies

Chapter 20:*BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES Carol Bates Penka Uses and Characteristics Types of Bibliographies and Catalogs Kinds of Information Contained in Bibliographies and Library Catalogs Evaluation Authority Scope Arrangement Currency Selection Important General Sources Shared Cataloging Networks U.S. Bibliography Current Bibliographies from Britain, France, and Canada Sources of Purchasing Information Library Catalogs Serial and Newspaper Sources Bibliographies of Bibliographies Recommended Lists Search Strategies

Chapter 21:*INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS Linda C. Smith Uses and Characteristics Evaluation Format Scope Authority Accuracy Arrangement Special Features Selection Needs of Users Cost Uniqueness Full-Text Coverage Important General Sources General Periodical Indexes Newspaper Indexes Broad-Subject Periodical Indexes Citation Indexes Indexes for Special Types of Materials Indexes of Reviews Indexes for Different Literary Forms Search Strategies

Chapter 22:* GOVERNMENT INFORMATION AND STATISTICS SOURCES Eric Forte and Mary Mallory Introduction Government Information: A Brief History Uses and Characteristics Organization of Documents Uses of Government Information Evaluation Selection Using Important Government Information Sources General Guides: Learning Government Information Reference Strategies General Facts and Directories Web Search Engines General Catalogs and Bibliographies Specialized Catalogs, Indexes, Bibliographies, and Directories Periodical Indexes Law and Legislative Information Statistical Sources Canadian Government Information Important General Canadian Sources Search Strategies Author/Title Index Subject Index